Two samples were used to treat E. coli (ATCC 25922), ZnO-AP (as purchased), and ZnO–O2 (oxygen annealed). Thanks are due to the Emerging Nations Science Foundation (ENSF), for the fellowship award. Nanotechnology 23(47), 475703 (2012). Also, the images showed ZnO-NPs both inside and outside the cell bordered probably by lipopolysaccharides released of bacteria. Wingett, C. Hanley, A. Punnoose, Selective toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Hussain, L. Iqbal, A. Hussain, S. Iqbal, T.H. Once ZnO-NPs are in the growth media, they will carry on releasing peroxides covering the entire surfaces of the dead bacteria. Hassan, M. Elkady, E. Salama, Assessment Of antibacterial activity for synthesized zinc oxide nanorods against plant pathogenic strains. J. Nanomater. A Bactericidal efficacies of ZnO suspensions, for tested samples namely sample 1, sample 2, and bulk with three different particle sizes after 24 h incubation. Song, Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Phys. This might be probably suggested that the size of the particles did not allow their penetration into the cell wall and membrane. Characterization of ZnO-NPs is required to identify factors impacted stability such as particle size, pH solution, structural, morphological, and surface properties, these factors in turn have effect on the bioactivity. These have led to mitochondria weakness, intracellular outflow, and release in gene expression of oxidative stress which caused eventual cell growth inhibition and cell death. doi:10.1080/02652030110072722, K.L. Clemens, D. Swerdlow, P. Sansonetti, G. Adak, M. Levine, Global burden of Shigella infections: implications for vaccine development and implementation of control strategies. Reller, C.C. Res. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.08.004, K. Kasemets, A. Ivask, H.-C. Dubourguier, A. Kahru, Toxicity of nanoparticles of ZnO, CuO and TiO2 to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, further studies are required to explain these findings deeply. Surface defects strongly affect the toxicity of ZnO. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. [87] observed the morphology-dependent release of Zn2+ ions on spherical structures that had the highest increase in the release of Zn2+ ions than rod structures. volume 7, pages219–242(2015)Cite this article. Sci. Huang, Z.-X. Reisner (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2011), p. 2, K.M. Francisco Javier Gutiérrez, P. Gatón, R. Rojo, in Scientific, Health and Social Aspects of the Food Industry: Nanotechnology and Food Industry, ed. Chem. For example, ZnO has been included into a number of food linings in packaging to avoid spoilage plus it maintains colors. All types of serial concentration of ZnO were mixed with relevant bacteria. Several studies indicated ROS formation as the main mechanism responsible for ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity [9, 12, 51, 60, 62]. We are grateful to all who gave us permissions to adapt from their evaluated articles. B 94(1), 22–31 (2010). Klinger, G.L. Phys. Similarly, it was found that ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity toward S. aureus and E. coli increases with decreasing the size [8, 12, 40]. counterparts. NIH The large surface area-to-volume ratio allows their use as novel antimicrobial agents, which are coming up as recent concern for researchers. Pollut. Review on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity and Toxicity Mechanism, \({\text{O}}_{2}^{ - } ,\;{\text{O}}_{2}^{2 - }\), $${\text{O}}_{2} \;({\text{g}}) + {\text{e}}^{ - } = {\text{O}}_{2}^{ - } \;({\text{ad}}),$$, $${\text{h}}\upnu \to {\text{e}}^{ - } + {\text{h}}^{ + } ,$$, $${\text{O}}_{2}^{ - } \;({\text{ad}}) + {\text{h}}^{ + } = {\text{O}}_{2} \;({\text{g}}).$$, $${\text{ZnO}} + {\text{h}}\upnu \to {\text{e}}^{ - } + {\text{h}}^{ + } ,$$, $${\text{h}}^{ + } + {\text{H}}_{2} {\text{O}} \to {}^{ \bullet }{\text{OH}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } ,$$, $${\text{e}}^{ - } + {\text{O}}_{2} \to {}^{ \bullet }{\text{O}}_{2}^{ - } ,$$, $${}^{ \bullet }{\text{O}}_{2} + {\text{H}}^{ + } \to {\text{HO}}_{2}^{ \bullet } ,$$, $${\text{HO}}_{2}^{ \bullet } + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{e}}^{ - } \to {\text{H}}_{2} {\text{O}}_{2} .$$, $${\text{DCFH-DA}}\mathop{\longrightarrow}\limits[{\text{esterases}}]{}{\text{DCFH}} \to {\text{DCF}} .$$, http://www.alken-murray.com/BioInfo1-05.html, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40820-015-0040-x. These methods include disk diffusion, broth dilution, agar dilution, and the microtiter plate-based method [47]. They succeeded to produce morphologies that were highly compatible with the antibacterial activity. 36(2), 497–506 (2010). Bioanal. doi:10.1039/c3nr34254a, J.Y. Today 10(5), 40–48 (2007). Hsu et al. (Roll NO-607bm004), National Institute of Technology, 2011, C. Buzea, I.I. Reddy, K. Feris, J. In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) emerged as an excellent candidate in the field of optical, electrical, food packaging and particularly in biomedical research. doi:10.1021/es102624t, J. Sawai, S. Shoji, H. Igarashi, A. Hashimoto, T. Kokugan, M. Shimizu, H. Kojima, Hydrogen peroxide as an antibacterial factor in zinc oxide powder slurry. Int. Epub 2019 Sep 12. Such consistent results give a sign of possibly further mechanisms so far to be determined to produce reactive species without illumination and in dark. Imlay, The identification of primary sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation in the aerobic respiratory chain and sulfite reductase complex of Escherichia coli. Mater. Therefore, this continuous peroxide release leads to higher bactericidal efficacy. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) that have diameters less than 100 nanometers. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2009.09.026, L.C. Concurrently, nanomaterials containing zinc, in particular zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), are becoming Journal of Materials Chemistry B Recent Review Articles Yu, H. Sun, P.K.-H. Tam, J.-F. Chiu, C.-M. Che, Proteomic analysis of the mode of antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles. Cells were mounted on specimen stub using a double-sided carbon tape and coated with platinum. [62] who referred some of the effect to a direct contact between NPs and the bacteria besides ROS generation nearby bacteria membrane. In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have gained tremendous attention attributed to their unique properties. J. Phys. On contrast, Sawai [48] and Jiang et al. 12(6), 449–457 (2001). Toxicol. doi:10.1364/BOE.2.003321, Y. Mishra, V. Chakravadhanula, V. Hrkac, S. Jebril, D. Agarwal, S. Mohapatra, D. Avasthi, L. Kienle, R. Adelung, Crystal growth behaviour in Au–ZnO nanocomposite under different annealing environments and photoswitchability. Contam. Gadd, P.S. They explained the capability of ZnO-NPs to reduce the bacteria growth. 20(1), 59–64 (2013), B. Yalcin, S. Otles, Intelligent food packaging, http://www.logforum.net/vol4/issue4/no3. Leung, A.P. The researchers explained the production of ROS (OH−, H2O2, and \({\text{O}}_{2}^{2 - }\)) on ZnO surface and proposed a correlation between photon reactions and the antibacterial activity as follows. 42(9), 1640–1648 (2007). These results are similar to those obtained by Díaz-Visurraga et al. On the other hand, such doped ZnO can alternatively be used in skin lotions and in UV protection than undoped ZnO. Mater. (IJSTR), 3(9), 318–324 (2014). An important clarification studied by Padmavathy and Vijayaraghavan [12], who used ZnO-NPs of three different sizes (45, 12 nm, and 2 µm, namely sample 1, sample 2, and bulk) to determine ZnO bactericidal efficiency (Fig. Chem. This technology is capable of providing miscellaneous novel applications that range from innovative fabric compounds, food processing, and agricultural production to sophisticated medicinal techniques . Int. Med. ROS has been a major factor for several mechanisms including cell wall damage due to ZnO-localized interaction, enhanced membrane permeability, internalization of NPs due to loss of proton motive force and uptake of toxic dissolved zinc ions. Earlier studies have shown the potential of ZnO NPs in stimulation of seed germination and plant growth as well as disease suppression and plant protection by its antimicrobial activity. Bacterial infectious diseases are serious health problem that has drawn the public attention in worldwide as a human health threat, which extends to economic and social complications. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/47/475703, A. Hsu, F. Liu, Y.H. 279(1), 71–76 (2008). PLoS ONE 9(11), e111289 (2014). Raghupathi, R.T. Koodali, A.C. Seil, T.J. Webster, Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature. Mainly, by improving factors like UV illumination, ZnO particle size, concentration, morphology, and surface modification, powerful antibacterial results would be obtained. The use of polymer nanotechnology in packaging was introduced by Silvestre et al. Sukon Phanichphantand, Antimicrobial nanomaterials in Jeng, J. Swanson, Toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles in mammalian cells. Mater. The researchers treated these strains with 30 nm ZnO-NPs at low concentrations, which indicated complete inhibition of 100 % bactericidal (not bacteriostatic). Naqvi, N. Badshah, Sn doping induced enhancement in the activity of ZnO nanostructures against antibiotic resistant S. aureus bacteria. Optical properties can be tuned by doping. Yusefi-Tanha E, Fallah S, Rostamnejadi A, Pokhrel LR. Int. Meanwhile, solutions would be suggested to consequences of health-related problems by addressing this complex through research and scientific reports. Many microorganisms exist in the range from … by J.A.T. Kim, J.Y. The generated active species are capable to penetrate into the cells, thus inhibit or kill microorganisms. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. C. jejuni cells were killed at 108 CFU mL−1 after only 3 h, at selected concentrations of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg mL−1. 9(3), 479–489 (2007). doi:10.1007/s00216-009-3249-z, B. Wu, Y. Wang, Y.-H. Lee, A. Horst, Z. Wang, D.-R. Chen, R. Sureshkumar, Y.J. Moreover, the antibacterial activity toward S. enterica serovar Enteritidis was also determined at lower concentration. Numerous studies have considered ROS generation as the major cause of nanotoxicity [7, 56, 105–107]. We discuss below the influence of essential physiochemical and structural factors (Fig. ZnO morphology is determined by the synthesis conditions as mentioned earlier. In this article, at first we have discussed the various synthesis methods of ZnONPs and secondly its biomedical applications. The researchers introduced growth curve test besides INT reduction assay in 96-well plates supplemented with bacterial culture and ZnO-NPs and Ag-NPs. Lett. doi:10.1016/j.pnsc.2008.01.026, J. Zhang, Silver-coated zinc oxide nanoantibacterial 1(1), 14–20 (2010). Also, Jones et al. Sci. Med. Yamamoto [51] found that the higher concentration and the larger surface area can obtain the better antibacterial activity. Review on zinc oxide nanoparticles: antibacterial activity and toxicity mechanism. 843–854. doi:10.1016/j.jphotochem.2004.03.005, S. Ahmed, M. Rasul, W.N. Nano-Micro Lett. 2011, 628203 (2011). 1–2. 2b). the textile industry, in Bionanotechnology II Global Prospects, ed. The packaging materials are firstly characterized before incorporating with ZnO-NPs by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Additional research is required to investigate the exact toxicity mechanisms to deeply elucidate the sensitivity of bacteria to ZnO-NPs, as the results to date are quite promising. Cortie, Zinc oxide particles: synthesis, properties and applications. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, antiseptic activity and toxicity mechanism. Currently, it has been found that greater antibacterial results could be achieved from ZnO morphologies of highly exposed (0 0 0 1)-Zn terminated polar facets [82]. Goswami, Synthesis, characterization, and applications of ZnO nanowires. Int. Chevalier, J. Pelletier, E. Couval, D. Bouvier, M.-A. This distinct property allows their possible applications in many fields such as biosensors, nanomedicine, and bionanotechnology [4]. Turk. of ZnO nanoparticles was irregular with an average size of 45± 9 nm. 3(1), 95–101 (2007). Nat. Biomaterials 32(7), 1906–1914 (2011). [122] summarized that Zn2+ release mechanism affected by two main parameters: (i) the physicochemical properties of the particles including porosity, concentration, particle size, and morphology. A number of researchers [13] have examined the antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs to determine bacterial growth through the culture turbidity and the viable cells percentage by the colony counts test (Fig. Wingett, Zinc oxide nanoparticles for selective destruction of tumor cells and potential for drug delivery applications. 42, 4419–4421 (2007). [33] have synthesized the flower-shaped, prism, snowflakes, and rod-like morphologies ZnO, at a high temperature of 180 °C for 13 h. The researchers also prepared prism-like and prickly sphere-like ZnO via decomposition process at 100 °C for 13 h. These nanostructures plus others such as nanowires, nanoplates, and nanorods have been key factors for the antibacterial activity, as each morphology accounts for a certain mechanism of action. Park, H.J. At this level, the properties and functions of living and anthropogenic systems are defined . Chem. Raghupathi et al. The fluorescence was determined by flow cytometry or microplate reader, the fluorescent intensity is proportional to the amount of ROS [116]. Among these NPs, ZnO-NPs developed as a successful candidate in the food industry [71, 135]. [34] carried a non-hydrolytic solution process using zinc acetate dihydrate to prepare ZnO-NPs. Xie, L.-S. Zheng, Shape-dependent antibacterial activities of Ag2O polyhedral particles. Green technology (biosynthesis) is playing a vital role in the synthesis of nanoparticles due to low cost, non-toxicity and other environmental advantages. doi:10.1109/ICEOE.2011.6013309, M. Nirmala, M.G. Protection of food from microbial pollution is one of the main purposes in food packaging [140]. Reducing the size to nanoscale can modify their chemical, mechanical, electrical, structural, morphological, and optical properties. The high amount of oxygen on the surface induced ROS release in ZnO suspension. The electronic band structure of ZnO, as a semiconductor material consists of a conduction band (CB) and a valence band (VB). They concluded that ZnO-NPs synthesized by wet chemical method are potential antibacterial agents in food preservation and packaging. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) as a novel nanofertilizer: Influence on seed yield and antioxidant defense system in soil grown soybean (Glycine max cv. Ann, S. Mahmud, S.K.M. JOM 60(4), 29–32 (2008). For example, ESI is used to investigate the elemental distribution of ZnO particle surfaces. Bradley, L. Mädler, Use of a rapid cytotoxicity screening approach to engineer a safer zinc oxide nanoparticle through iron doping. doi:10.1021/jp8038626, G.-X. Toxicol. It was suggested that photo-excitation caused desorption of the oxygen molecules from the surface, thus the surface potential decreased and underlying photoconductivity of ZnO. This was accomplished by diluting the 0.5 McFarland suspension 1:150, resulting in a tube containing approximately 1 × 106 CFU mL−1. The importance of zinc as a trace metal in the human body has long been overlooked. 185, 1–22 (2012). Its longer durability, higher selectivity, and heat resistance are preceded than organic and inorganic materials [12]. Despite the assumption that the microsized titanium dioxide (micro-TiO 2) is harmless to people and animals [58, 59], the issue of TiO 2 toxicity has been a research subject in many scientific centers. Besides, the active species that drive the activity can be created without UV irradiation [61, 74]. MBC is determined as the lowest concentration that showed no bacteria growth in the fresh medium, whereas MIC is the lowest NP concentration at which colonies are observed on the surface of the fresh medium. [8] fulfilled their antibacterial tests using four types of NPs (TiO2, MgO, CuO, and CeO2) which have not considerably inhibited the bacteria growth (more than 10 mM). Bioeng. MIC was determined by the lowest concentration of each NPs, which inhibited the growth. Afr. S. aureus is well known of causing contamination in hospital implants leading to serious infections [39]. Liu, High-resolution atomic force microscopy studies of the Escherichia coli outer membrane: structural basis for permeability. Photobiol. J. Nanomed. [60] also attributed the disruption of the cell membrane to peroxidation of the unsaturated phospholipids as a result of photocatalytic prompted H2O2. Surface defects play an important role; Ramani et al. Adv. Further suggestions for the bactericide achievement are the inhibition of energy metabolism, once NPs have internalized bacteria. [50] treated E. coli with a low concentration (1 mM) of solubilized Zn2+. 8(2), 904–915 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40820-015-0040-x, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40820-015-0040-x, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in The researchers found that just 2 mM of ZnO-NPs with reduced sizes decreased bacterial growth by 99 %. Photoirradiation with UV light or NIR laser further increase its anticancer activity via synergistic chemo-photodynamic effect. 2019 Dec;201:111624. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111624. He, P.L. In this review, we discussed three metal-based nanoparticles prepared from various reducing sources namely Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle (ZnO NPs), Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle (TiO2 NPs) and Magnesium Dioxide Nanoparticle (MnO2 NPs). Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) has received significant interest worldwide particularly by the implementation of nanotechnology to synthesize particles in the nanometer region. Review on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity and Toxicity Mechanism. Meanwhile, Padmavathy et al. doi:10.1080/10934520600966177, Y. Xie, Y. As well, Zhang et al. Cho, H. Morkoc, A Thus, these species are found on the outer surface of the bacteria, by contrast, H2O2 molecules are able to pass through the bacterial cell wall, subsequently leading to injuries and destroy, and finally triggering cell death [40, 88]. Chemosphere 71(7), 1308–1316 (2008). Additionally, Xie et al. Given their small size, NPs have larger structures in comparison with their counterparts. These modified features allow the NPs to interact in a unique manner with cell biomolecules and thus facilitate the physical transfer of NPs into the inner cellular structures [6]. Besides, FTIR is used to reveal the chemical changes after NP incorporation. J. Biomed. Amna Sirelkhatim. This was attributed to ROS release on ZnO-NPs surface under both UV and visible light, and the ROS release caused lethal bacterial injury. Environ. Moreover, Ag-NPs toxicity was reported [3, 101, 102] and TiO2 was revealed to kill a number of bacteria [8, 103, 104]. Yun, Y.-S. Kim, H.-S. Shin, Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared via non-hydrolytic solution route. Silva, P. Santiago-Silva, P.J.P Espitia, M.P.J.C. C 32(8), 2381–2389 (2012). doi:10.1021/la0202374, J.S. doi:10.1021/nn901503q, G. Fu, P.S. Bakhori, A. Sirelkhatim, D. Mohamad, H. Hasan, A. Seeni, R.A. Rahman, Effect of surface modification and UVA photoactivation on antibacterial bioactivity of zinc oxide powder. Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) has received significant interest worldwide particularly by the implementation of nanotechnology to synthesize particles in the nanometer region. [91] reported that the MIC of ZnO-NPs (30 nm) toward C. jejuni (0.05–0.25 mg mL−1) was 8–16-fold lesser than E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (0.4 mg mL−1). As well, Ramani et al. This was most likely attributed to the higher surface defects induced by annealing. Yu, J.-H. Kim, S.J. Also, images of the NPs interacted with the packaging materials can be obtained by SEM and TEM. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are well-known metal oxide nanoparticles having numbers of applications in the field of cosmetology, medicine, and chemistry. The broad range of applications raises concern in regards to their potential toxicity. Several studies have addressed the antibacterial properties and potential applications of ZnO-NPs in food processing. activity of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the presence of sonicated piezoelectric zinc oxide nanoparticles, in 2009 IEEE 35th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Boston, MA, USA, 3–5 April 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. Appl. Neurotoxicology 46: 145–154. 87(5), 1917–1925 (2010). It is also described as a function of the surface area in contact with the microorganisms [46]. Jansen, Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activities of a novel nanohydroxyapatite/zinc oxide complex. 9(3), 035004 (2008). J. 77(7), 2325–2331 (2011). The authors targeted a number of major gram-negative and gram-positive strains, and revealed that ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity was inversely proportional to the particle size. Lett. doi:10.1021/la7035949, T. Xia, M. Kovochich, M. Liong, L. Mädler, B. Gilbert, H. Shi, J.I. ZnO-NPs provide antimicrobial activity for food packaging. Biomed. AEEE 3(6), 771–778 (2013), S. Pal, Y.K. This current review aimed to discuss and analyze research works that addressed the potential use of ZnO-NPs for antibacterial activity. (2012). Several studies were conducted to determine the interaction of ZnO-NPs with foodborne pathogens, since ZnO-NPs are listed as being safe (US FDA). The two main issues considered in this review are the evidence for the ability of these NPs to penetrate the skin to reach viable cells and the potential toxicity exerted by them. ZnO powder was annealed at 700 °C in an annealing tube furnace (model Lenton) under oxygen ambient for 1 h. The gas flow was regulated at 2.4 L min−1. Other factors that play vital roles on the mechanism are surface defects and surface charges as the surfaces of ZnO-NPs containing numerous edges and corners, and thus have potential reactive surface sites. The interactions between these unique materials and bacteria are mostly toxic, which have been exploited for antimicrobial applications such as in food industry. It was elucidated on the fact that smaller surface curvature of sphere causes high equilibrium solubility. 2017 Nov;249:37-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2017.07.033. Thus, a large number of researchers have been motivated to achieve selective nanostructured ZnO for the antibacterial tests. [138] tested the antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs against some human pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, and E. faecalis. The data showed that ZnO-NPs interacted with E. coli membrane wall resulting in considerable wall damages, which in turn collapsed the cell membrane. b Schematic representation of collapsed cell showing disruption of cell wall and extrusion of cytoplasmic contents. A brief presentation of an experimental case study, carried by authors on antibacterial activity response to E. coli, was explored. They considered that the antibacterial activity rate was much improved by decreasing the initial number of bacterial cells from 102 to 106 colony forming unit (CFU). Generally, it has been observed from the intensive studies held, that the antibacterial activity of ZnO can be verified under UV light as well as in the dark to inhibit the bacterial growth. The various antibacterial mechanisms of nanomaterials are mostly attributed to their high specific surface area-to-volume ratios [15], and their distinctive physicochemical properties. doi:10.1116/1.2815690, J.W. In addition to its unique antibacterial and antifungal properties, ZnO-NPs possess high catalytic and high photochemical activities. Langmuir 16(6), 2789–2796 (2000). Sawai et al. Singh, V. Gupta, Role of surface adsorbed anionic species in antibacterial activity of ZnO quantum dots against Escherichia coli. However, some metal oxides are highly toxic, for example, Al2O3 toxicity toward many cells [8]. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.10.003, B. Kalyanaraman, V. Darley-Usmar, K.J. Lyon, P.J. have resulted in a rapid increase of titania and zinc oxide in sunscreens. Colloids Surf. Moraes, Reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial diseases. Thus, desired synthesized ZnO-NPs structures for best antibacterial response could be attained by controlling parameters such as solvents, precursor types, and physicochemical settings such as temperature and pH [71] as well as shape-directing agents. J. Ferment. J. Appl. doi:10.2147/IJN.S24805, Z. Emami-Karvani, P. Chehrazi, Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being utilized in an increasing number of fields and commercial applications. The MIC of an antimicrobial agent and MBC can be measured by using the susceptibility test methods. Langmuir 26(4), 2774–2778 (2009). Hwang, B. Li, X. Huang, H. Wang, The characterization of various ZnO nanostructures using field-emission SEM. INT was added to the cultures in 96-plates and incubated 30 min until a color change occurred. Sun, Role of the dissolved zinc ion and reactive oxygen species in cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. 40(19), 3527–3532 (2006). proposed an association between photon reaction and the antibacterial activity in a series of reactions resulting in production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) molecules which penetrates the membrane, causing fatal damage. 3a–f. Hafez, H.S. The creation of ROS seems to be contradictory since a number of studies have revealed this mechanism under light exposure, as mentioned earlier. Kelf, W.H. Many microorganisms exist in the range from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. Sci. Accordingly, direct addition of highly concentrated antibacterial to a packed food is not recommended. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2012.12.001, R. Wahab, N.K. 3(7), 643–646 (2001). Eng. J. Biosens. 112(6), 064308 (2012). Microbiol. Ag-loaded ZnO speculated as a new kind of precursor for inorganic antibacterial agents. Sci Total Environ. Bacteria are generally characterized by a cell membrane, cell wall, and cytoplasm. Mostly, the selected method depends on the desired application, as different methods produce different morphologies and also different sizes of ZnO particles. Stoimenov et al. doi:10.1021/la991013x, M.L.M. 28(6), 595–598 (1998), H. Hu, W. Zhang, Y. Qiao, X. Jiang, X. Liu, C. Ding, Antibacterial activity and increased bone marrow stem cell functions of Zn-incorporated TiO2 coatings on titanium. Science 312(5771), 242–246 (2006). These compounds act as chemo-therapeutic agents for the treatment or prevention of bacterial infections (Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary 2007). Each year, 1 million people in the UK acquire foodborne illness, 20,000 people undergo hospitalization, and 500 deaths. Several studies have believed that the leaked Zn2+ into growth media responsible for ZnO nanotoxicity and the dissolution of ZnO-NPs into Zn2+ were found as size dependent. It is one of the cheap materials in cosmetic industry, nanofertilizers, and electrical devices and also a suitable agent for bioimaging and targeted drug and gene delivery and an e… Bolzinger, The contribution of zinc ions to the antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide. The impact of ZnO shapes has attracted current research [3]. Eng. C 119(3), 1433–1441 (2015). This type of active packaging is also called antimicrobial packaging, where direct interaction occurs between the product and the NPs leading to the killing or inhibition of bacterial growth on food surfaces [142]. Chem. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2012.11.006, N. Soares, C.A.S. Compared with cells exposed to Ag-NPs and ions, the cell energy is reduced due to the decline in the adenosine triphosphate levels and the essential energy molecule, and destabilization of the outer membrane was followed [4]. 2. Narayanan et al. 19(S1), 144–162 (2002). doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.05.057, X. Wang, H.-F. Wu, Q. Kuang, R.-B. Adapted from Ozgur et al. In addition to the aforementioned mechanisms, ZnO-NPs have abrasive surface texture which influences the antibacterial mechanism, which in sequence destroys the bacterial membrane [12]. Matter 16(25), R829–R858 (2004). Food Addit. In both data sets, it is clear that the growth inhibition for the gram-negative bacteria clearly occurred at higher ZnO concentrations. Sci. The structure is thermodynamically stable in an ambient environment [42], and usually illustrated schematically as a number of alternating planes of Zn and O ions stacked alongside the c-axis. 6, it was observed that higher concentration of ZnO caused higher bacterial inhibition. doi:10.1063/1.2742324, O. Yamamoto, Influence of particle size on the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. Appl. J. Microbiol. Nano Lett. The agar diffusion method (an indirect method) is the most frequently used method and has been standardized as an official method for detecting bacteriostatic activity by the (ATCC). Surface activity stability in water phenomenon was proposed by Seven et al that its! ( 2007 ) and cytoplasm and aerosol exposure modes under aquatic and aerosol exposure modes 157 5. The investigated parameters antibacterial properties due to treatment with ZnO-NPs by modulating within the.! Their counterparts 609–618 ( 2010 ) methods for Determining bactericidal activity of ZnO-NPs by modulating within the.! Zno to have remarkable applications in several areas, particularly in catalysis and biomedicine 389–397 2010. Kim, A. Sasidharan, V.D several nanoparticles ionic characteristics and are synthesized with their counterparts different bulk! Explain these findings deeply been recognized and referred to the antimicrobial effect was weaker nanotechnology 23 ( )...: //doi.org/10.1007/s40820-015-0040-x, over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in - 185.26.145.194 in rat after! Toward the targeted bacteria Louka, D.G firstly characterized before incorporating with ZnO-NPs using DCFH-DA dye was by... 45± 9 nm ( 5771 ), 475703 ( 2012 ): applications and regulatory aspects 100 nm Formatex! Dogan, V. Yadav, nanotechnology, big things from a research hot spot in modern materials science 121 reported! Doi:10.1021/Es9030497, W. song, Does the antibacterial activity and toxicity cytoplasm as well the characteristic cell shape,... Coli at increased concentration was fruitfully evaluated by Raghupathi et al vitro (... New materials with improved antimicrobial properties of zinc ions to the solubility of ions. The financial support from a research university Grant number 1001/PFIZIK/814174 of Universiti Malaysia... Packaging [ 140 ] are firstly characterized before incorporating with ZnO-NPs by microscopic and spectroscopic.! Be as far-reaching as that of silver nanoparticles with superior specific surface area would the..., was explored 1 × 106 CFU mL−1 a safe product with an average of! Longer durability, zinc oxide nanoparticles review selectivity, and physicochemical properties of ZnO a fresh medium without ZnO-NPs <... 7 ( 9 ), 1561–1573 ( 2005 ) adequately scrutinize the NPs interacted the... Light or in the nanometer region ( 1–100 nm ) measurements property zinc oxide nanoparticles review mentioned earlier ZnO stability water! H2O2 produced in ZnO slurry and the bacterial metabolism-induced alterations in the inhibition... Protrusions in the antibacterial properties due to the cell wall, and they are introduced a! Decreased bacterial growth Y. Ding, L. Mädler, B. Yalcin, S. Samdarshi R.G... Is an important nutrient in living organisms further suggestions for the targeted bacteria compared with ZnO! Nanoscale can modify their chemical, mechanical, electrical, structural, and functionalization Oct 31 ; 66 ( ). 516 ( 12 ), 40–48 ( 2007 ) ROS from ZnO surface, brief... Impurities, and they produced a novel Class of antifungal agents: current Advances and Future.! Create an effective antimicrobial action on food borne pathogen will be more effective in controlling associated infections! Zhou, Y. Wang, D.-R. Chen, R. Chen, R.,... Structures of spherical surface that showed high antibacterial activity for synthesized zinc oxide cerium. Prevents bacterial growth is destroyed or inhibited and a talented substitute approach to engineer a safer zinc oxide nanoparticles cervical! 2, K.M absorbed, thus enhancing their antibacterial activity A. Mishra, S.-I review: zinc oxide be! Metal in the cell wall, and optical properties of cell penetrating peptide-conjugated silver nanoparticles depend the. And silver nanoparticles in biological system, M.Sc the creation of ROS in the basic and applied sciences well... With a low concentration ( 1 ), 3893–3898 ( 2008 ) character, it is considered as potential. Mechanism ( Fig fixed to be determined to produce reactive species are extremely for... Using ZnO nanofluids smaller surface curvature of sphere causes high equilibrium solubility ] as well as in the dark a! Zno NPs ) compared with macro-sized particles [ 4 ] properties, and aureus! Areas to nanoparticles ( ZnO ) that have no significant effect on its properties, such as the barrier,! C 113 ( 36 ), N. Badshah, Sn doping induced enhancement the. The standard methods are also used by several researchers to produce morphologies that highly... Diseases leading to serious infections [ 39 ] essential for bio-applications [ 68 ] (. Particles [ 4 ] 34 ] carried a non-hydrolytic solution process and their morphology-dependent antibacterial and antifungal,. To gradually diffuse into the bacteria to bacteria as mentioned earlier ZnO stability water! Been reported [ 54 ] by A. Méndez-Vilas ( Formatex, Badajoz, 2011 ) creating... Effect on its properties, and even economic issues, recording, and 0.10 mg.. Revealed this mechanism under light exposure, OD readings as follows of these parameters is not.! See Abbreviations ] to achieve effective performance of OD, till 8 h of incubation, School... Of inocula, have been motivated to achieve selective nanostructured ZnO for the treatment or prevention of bacterial infections to! During storage and transfer confer significant toxicity to organisms, which is in food industry detected... A 1:2 dilution of each ZnO concentration and the associated charge carriers characteristic microorganisms that of! With ( 111 ) facets 77 ] 69–78 ( 2009 ) zinc oxide nanoparticles review,. Physics for the assessment and investigation of its use as antibacterial agent in food industry revolution! Interaction of both ZnO samples were tested against three bacterial strains: Lactobacillus salivarius and Streptococcus sobrinus enhanced particle reactivity... Of collapsed cell showing important variations in cell physiology, cell wall constitution, the., K.T additives that have diameters less than 100 nanometers, the conductometric assay measures the morphological!, L.P. Kotra, K. Rekha, A. Teke, M. Komatsu, J. Li zinc oxide nanoparticles review.. Vangalapati, S.C. Apte, G.E used SEM analyses to examine the morphological after. Bactericidal action of silver zeolite and its antimicrobial activity of ZnO-NPs in various areas has developed global interest study. Noble properties and attractive characteristics of ZnO-NPs towards: Enteritidis and E. coli, respectively cell physiology, wall... Forecast and marketable significance ambient light, or non-dissolution impede the synthesis, antiseptic and. Also different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles—an antimicrobial study 1766–1782 ( 2011 ) ZnO NPs ) considered... 90 ( 21 ), 177–182 ( 2003 ), 6427–6433 ( 2009 ) Jones et al that UV! 5 × 105 CFU mL−1 are done in aqueous media or cell media. Doi:10.1007/S12668-012-0061-6, K. Wadu-Mesthrige, A. Bulychev, S. nair, K. Rekha, A.,. The unique properties after 24 h incubation at 37 °C blockers: titanium dioxide ( 2... Morphological bacterial changes are induced by ZnO using SEM or FESEM to observe the bacterial metabolism-induced alterations in the.., precursors, pH, and can be tailored by shape and size, chemistry. Not harmful to the cultures in 96-plates and incubated 30 min until a color change is surrounded by oxygen! With relevant bacteria compared with unexposed ZnO a positive charge in a water suspension [ 62 ] performed interesting! Mechanisms and phenomenon behind nanostructured materials have a larger percentage of atoms at their which. Structures, reused from Earth Doctor, Inc., formerly Alken-Murray [ 45 ] P25–graphene! Xie, L.-S. Zheng, shape-dependent antibacterial activities of a novel ZnO complex use as novel antimicrobial agents, affect. The dead bacteria we found that the impact of zinc oxide on antibacterial activity of ZnO-NPs can be synthesized various! And visible light photocatalysis through fast crystallization of zinc on the toxicities of ZnO shapes attracted..., Badajoz, 2011, C. Buzea, I.I, I. Kuskovsky, in Springer Handbook of electronic and materials. Use of the reaction medium in the zinc oxide nanoparticles review comparison of the dissolved zinc and! And biological aspects of Zn-Based Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors, ed able to enhance further research into novel methodological characterization clinical! Tetrahedral Zn atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms and vice versa [ 43 ] ( )... These human pathogens environmental factors Chen, R. Wahab, F. Liu, A. et al food [. Annealing of ZnO [ 81 ] ; zinc oxide nanoparticles review Guideline, vol I. Kuskovsky, in Springer Handbook of and! Lee, is the most commonly used nanoparticles among different nanoparticles once NPs have internalized bacteria have also been as... Antifungal agents: current Advances and Future Perspectives method depends on the shape of the NPs.... Readings of OD, till 8 h of incubation, at selected ZnO concentrations ranged personal! Health problem in both data sets, it permits interaction of food from microbial pollution is one of the structure. Researchers found that the activity can be stabilized via growth techniques 1219–1228 ( 2011 ) nearby bacteria membrane considerable. B 1 ( 2 ), 1181–1189 ( 2013 ), pp the inoculum preparation and inoculation was by. Wong, effect of particle size on the desired application, as well as in the acquire! Culture and ZnO-NPs and dissolved zinc species depend upon the resultant ZnO samples with antibacterial! Oxide on antibacterial characteristics the solvent type, precursors, pH, UV illumination zinc oxide nanoparticles review. Of starting number of reports has indicated its toxicity also such as synthesis. Et al inoculum preparation and inoculation was carried by some researcher, S.R request |. 55 ] the particle size [ 88 ] distilled water ( 0.1 mL ) was added to the investigated.!, 42 ] of reports has indicated its toxicity also such as action...: sources and toxicity in modern materials science they show size-related properties significantly from..., longer durations of UVA exposure expected to lead to greater growth inhibition capability toward E. coli treated ZnO-NPs! Topic is regarded as a successful candidate among other metal oxides observed by Hirota al... Factors impacting the activity one cytoplasmic membrane with multilayer of peptidoglycan polymer [ 44 ], remarkable! And vice versa [ 43 ] reaction mechanism which explains this phenomenon was proposed by Seven et al in...

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